Immunizations are an essential component of modern medicine and are paramount for global health. International immunization programs for children have many vaccines in common but, depending on the region, may vary slightly. For example, most industrialized nations tend to follow similar primary immunization schedules, as opposed to nonindustrialized countries. Geographic location also contributes to variation in immunization schedules by country. The choice of specific vaccines can also vary by country (eg, 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine instead of or in addition to the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine). (Rolek, 2016)


Another consideration relating to global immunization is the use of travel vaccines. This is particularly important, as the number of world travelers, including children, continues to increase. In general, preparation for global travel should include an assessment of the traveler’s current vaccination status. This is imperative in children, as they are more susceptible to microbial infection than adults but less likely to receive pre-travel care. Administration of routine childhood vaccinations (eg, hepatitis, polio, and meningococcal vaccines) is often prioritized over specific travel vaccines, as these diseases are still prevalent in many underdeveloped countries. Specific travel vaccines (eg, typhoid fever, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis) are the next consideration, as these diseases are endemic in many resource-limited countries. (Rolek, 2016)


Pediatric Vaccines